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15-16学年度第一学期高三英语晒学案

作者:课程管理部 来源: 发布时间:2016年12月23日
 

高三英语YY-15-03-060

语法之形容词、副词

编写人:刘荣华           审核人:张覃             编写时间:2015-11-16

班级:              组别:                 组名:                     姓名:

【学习目标】

1.复习形容词与副词的基本功能及其在句中的位置;

2. 掌握常见形容词和副词之间的区别;

3. 掌握形容词和副词的比较等级的常用句型。  

【学法指导和使用说明】

1. 自主复习Step I 和Step II,用红笔勾画出疑惑点;独立思考并完成Step III的学习任务,并总结规律方法。 

2. 针对自主学习勾画出的疑惑点,课上小组讨论交流,答疑解惑。

Step I 形容词和副词的作用与位置

形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容词、动词、其他副词或者句子,一般位于形容词之前,动词之后或句子之首。以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记:

(1) 形容词短语作定语,定语后置。如a task difficult to finish

(2) 表语形容词(afraid,alike,alone,asleep,awake,alive等)作定语,定语后置。如a man alive。有些表身体健康状况的形容词如well,faint,ill只作表语。sick既可作表语又可作定语,ill如作定语意为“bad”。

(3) 用作定语,修饰由不定代词one,no,any,some和every构成的复合词如anything,something等时,通常后置。如I have something important to tell you.

(4) else常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。

(5)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。

We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday.

(6) 频度副词如often,always,usually等在be动词后,行为动词前。

(7) 几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定词(包括冠词、所有格、人称代词、指示代词、数词等)+观点词(品质、状态,即表示好、坏、美、丑等的词)+形状或样式词+大小、长短或高低词+年龄或新旧词+颜色词+产地或来源词+材料或种类词+用途词+名词。

a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella

(8) 以­ly结尾的词性辨析。

①下列单词以­ly结尾,但却是形容词而非副词:lively,lonely,lovely,deadly,friendly,ugly,silly,likely,brotherly,timely等。

②表原意(无­ly)和引申意(有­ly)的副词:

   

 

③有无­ly意义大不相同的副词:

 

 

 

 

Step II形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

1. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级的变化方法如下:

1) 符合规则的:

情    况

加    法

例    词

一 般 情 况

直接加 -er ; -est

tall-taller-tallest

以e结尾的词

加 –r ; -st

nice-nicer-nicest

以“辅音+y”结尾的词

变y为i再加-er ; -est

dry-drier-driest

heavy-heavier-heaviest

以一个辅音字母结尾的词

辅音字母双写,再加-er ; -est

thin-thinner-thinnest

多音节和部分双音节单词

在词前加 more ; most

more delicious

most delicious

 

 

2) 几个不规则的形容词和副词的比较级和最高级如下表:

原  级

比较级

最高级

good , well

better

best

bad , ill

worse

worst

many , much

more

most

little

less

least

far

farther / further

farthest / furthest

 

2. 比较级

①修饰形容词,副词比较级的常用修饰词有:no, a little, a bit, much, even, still, a lot, a great deal, far, by far, rather, any等。

He works even harder than before.

②表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the+比较级(主语+谓语),the+比较级(主语+谓语)”的结构(意为“越……越……”)。

The harder he works,the happier he feels.

③某些以­ior结尾的形容词进行比较时,用to代替than。这些词有inferior(劣等的,次的),superior(较好的,优于……),junior(资历较浅的),senior(资格较老的),prior(在……之前)等。

He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry.

④倍数表达法

1) A is three (four,etc.) times the size (height,length etc.) of B.

  The new building is four times the size  (the height) of the old one.

2) A is three (four,etc.) times as big (high,long,etc.) as B.

  Asia is four times as large as Europe.

3) A is three (four,etc.)times bigger(higher,longer,etc.)than B.

  Your school is three times bigger than ours.

注意:用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double。

 

3. 最高级

①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the+最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范围的介词短语。

Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three.

He works (the) hardest in his class.

②表示“最高程度”的形容词,如excellent,extreme,perfect,favorite等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。

③形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。

He is the tallest (boy) in his class.

④作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。

Of all the boys he came (the) earliest.

 

4. 其它

(1)由as组成的形容词或副词短语。

as much as+不可数名词  (数量)多达  Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons.

  as many as+可数名词 (数量)多达    I have as many as sixteen reference books.

as early as早在              As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island.

as far as远到;就……而知(论)   We might go as far as(走到) the church and back.

As far as I know(就我所知),he has been there before.

may(might,could) as well不妨,不如   Then you might as well stay with us here.

as...as one can尽某人所能的……       They are as unreliable as they can be.

He began to run as fast as he could.

as...as possible尽可能……的     Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible.

(2)so...that...与such...that...的区别。

 

 

Step III高考演练

I单句填空

1.The Huang River is the second __________ (long) river in our country.

2. Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is _________ (clean) than ever.

3. While there are _______(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and          require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river.

4. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, and some of them looked very anxious and ___________        (disappoint).

5. Five others on the bus began talking about what the boy had done and the crowd of strangers   ___________(sudden) became friendly to one another.

6. With the word “PM2.5 ”__________ (constant) appearing in media reports, people pay greater attention to it     and seek health tips for smoggy days.

7. Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it _________ (regular) arranges quick getaways      here for people living in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

8. Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat _________(slow) during          cool nights, thus warming the house.

9. As _________ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to          be to make the cycle work on most days.

10. People say that young Chinese students’ eyesight keeps dropping ________(sharp) because of both too much          homework and poor learning conditions.

 

II单句改错(每句一个错误)

1. Nearly five years before, and with the help of our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes(圣女果)       in our back garden.

2. There are so much cherry tomatoes that we often share them with our neighbors.

3. Lots of studies have shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem

4. There is plenty of food, water and sunshine, and our friends are living there, warm and comfortably.

5. Firms that provide relative high wages and good working conditions do not seem to have problems attracting     employees.

6. Take a vocabulary notebook with you all the time. Collect any good words, sentences or articles, particular       famous and wise sayings.

7. He was warned not to get closely to the burning building.

﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡﹡

【冥思清单】

通过本节课的复习我明白了

1. _____________________________________________________

2. _____________________________________________________

3. _____________________________________________________

 

组长点评

亮点:

1.规范:本导学案按照远安一高导学案二次转型指南以及英语学科素养的培养的相关要求进行编写。

2.内容符合全国卷目标:本导学案根据全国卷高考要求,对形容词、副词的相关考点进行讲解、说明,并配有相应的练习来训练学生们在语法填空当中要注意的语法点,为做语法填空能力的提高做好铺垫。

3.遵循“两降一增”的原则:本导学案本着降低难度、减少容量的原则进行编写,让基础一般的学生可以在复习中找到信心;高考相关练习的使用在一定程度上可以增加学生的思维量。

需改进处:

1.在对形容词、副词的相关考点进行讲解、说明时,特殊的要点应配上相应例句,更利于学生的理解和掌握。

2.后面的练习部分如果能够按照全国卷要求增加一个语法填空的总的练习会更好,更有利于促进学生思维量的增加。

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